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Gambling cards

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They are dated to the 12th and 13th centuries late Fatimid , Ayyubid , and early Mamluk periods. A near complete pack of Mamluk playing cards dating to the 15th century and of similar appearance to the fragments above was discovered by Leo Aryeh Mayer in the Topkapı Palace , Istanbul , in Each suit contained ten pip cards and three court cards, called malik king , nā'ib malik viceroy or deputy king , and thānī nā'ib second or under-deputy.

The thānī nā'ib is a non-existent title so it may not have been in the earliest versions; without this rank, the Mamluk suits would structurally be the same as a Ganjifa suit. In fact, the word "Kanjifah" appears in Arabic on the king of swords and is still used in parts of the Middle East to describe modern playing cards.

Influence from further east can explain why the Mamluks, most of whom were Central Asian Turkic Kipchaks , called their cups tuman , which means "myriad" 10, in the Turkic, Mongolian and Jurchen languages.

The Mamluk court cards showed abstract designs or calligraphy not depicting persons possibly due to religious proscription in Sunni Islam , though they did bear the ranks on the cards. Nā'ib would be borrowed into French nahipi , Italian naibi , and Spanish naipes , the latter word still in common usage.

Panels on the pip cards in two suits show they had a reverse ranking, a feature found in madiao, ganjifa , and old European card games like ombre , tarot , and maw. A fragment of two uncut sheets of Moorish -styled cards of a similar but plainer style was found in Spain and dated to the early 15th century.

Export of these cards from Cairo, Alexandria, and Damascus , ceased after the fall of the Mamluks in the 16th century. Playing cards probably came to Europe from the East, specifically those used by the Mamluks in Egypt. The cards arrived first either in Italy or Spain.

Historical evidence is inconclusive as to which, however the Italian-suited cards are closest in appearance to the Mamluk cards and the Spanish design appears to be simplification. The polo sticks depicted in one of the suits used by the Mamluks were modified by the Italians into ceremonial batons; these were changed in the Spanish design to wooden clubs.

The earliest European mention of playing cards appears in in a Catalan language rhyme dictionary which lists naip among words ending in -ip. According to Denning, the only attested meaning of this Catalan word is "playing card".

The earliest record of playing cards in central Europe is believed by some researchers to be a ban on card games in the city of Bern in , [48] [49] but this source is disputed as the earliest copy available dates to and may have been amended.

Among the early patterns of playing card were those derived from the Mamluk suits of cups, coins, swords, and polo sticks, which are still used in traditional Latin decks. In the account books of Johanna, Duchess of Brabant and Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg , an entry dated May 14, , by receiver general of Brabant Renier Hollander reads: "Given to Monsieur and Madame four peters and two florins, worth eight and a half sheep, for the purchase of packs of cards".

From about to [65] professional card makers in Ulm , Nuremberg , and Augsburg created printed decks. Playing cards even competed with devotional images as the most common uses for woodcuts in this period.

Most early woodcuts of all types were coloured after printing, either by hand or, from about onwards, stencils. These 15th-century playing cards were probably painted. The Flemish Hunting Deck , held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art , is the oldest complete set of ordinary playing cards made in Europe from the 15th century.

As cards spread from Italy to Germanic countries, the Latin suits were replaced with the suits of leaves or shields , hearts or roses , bells, and acorns.

France initially used Latin-suited cards and the Aluette pack used today in western France may be a relic of that time, but around , French card manufacturers, perhaps in order to facilitate mass production, went over to very much simplified versions of the German suit symbols. A combination of Latin and Germanic suit pictures and names resulted in the French suits of trèfles clovers , carreaux tiles , cœurs hearts , and piques pikes around The trèfle clover was probably derived from the acorn and the pique pike from the leaf of the German suits.

The names pique and spade , however, may have derived from the sword spade of the Italian suits. In the late 14th century, Europeans changed the Mamluk court cards to represent European royalty and attendants.

In a description from , the earliest courts were originally a seated " king ", an upper marshal that held his suit symbol up, and a lower marshal that held it down. In England, the lowest court card was called the " knave " which originally meant male child compare German Knabe , so in this context the character could represent the " prince ", son to the king and queen; the meaning servant developed later.

Although the Germans abandoned the queen before the s, the French permanently picked it up and placed it under the king. Packs of 56 cards containing in each suit a king, queen, knight, and knave as in tarot were once common in the 15th century. In , the Mistery of Makers of Playing Cards of the City of London now the Worshipful Company of Makers of Playing Cards was incorporated under a royal charter by Charles I ; the Company received livery status from the Court of Aldermen of the City of London in card collectors, dealers, bridge players, [and] magicians".

During the mid 16th century, Portuguese traders introduced playing cards to Japan. The first indigenous Japanese deck was the Tenshō karuta named after the Tenshō period.

Packs with corner and edge indices i. the value of the card printed at the corner s of the card enabled players to hold their cards close together in a fan with one hand instead of the two hands previously used. The first such pack known with Latin suits was printed by Infirerra and dated , [76] but this feature was commonly used only from the end of the 18th century.

The first American-manufactured French deck with this innovation was the Saladee's Patent, printed by Samuel Hart in This was followed by the innovation of reversible court cards.

This invention is attributed to a French card maker of Agen in But the French government, which controlled the design of playing cards, prohibited the printing of cards with this innovation.

In central Europe Trappola cards and Italy Tarocco Bolognese the innovation was adopted during the second half of the 18th century. In Great Britain, the pack with reversible court cards was patented in by Edmund Ludlow and Ann Wilcox.

The French pack with this design was printed around by Thomas Wheeler. Sharp corners wear out more quickly, and could possibly reveal the card's value, so they were replaced with rounded corners.

Before the midth century, British, American, and French players preferred blank backs. The need to hide wear and tear and to discourage writing on the back led cards to have designs, pictures, photos, or advertising on the reverse. The United States introduced the joker into the deck. It was devised for the game of euchre , which spread from Europe to America beginning shortly after the American Revolutionary War.

In euchre, the highest trump card is the Jack of the trump suit, called the right bower from the German Bauer ; the second-highest trump, the left bower , is the jack of the suit of the same color as trumps.

The joker was invented c. Columbia University 's Rare Book and Manuscript Library holds the Albert Field Collection of Playing Cards, an archive of over 6, individual decks from over 50 countries and dating back to the s.

Since , Vanderbilt University has been home to the 1,volume George Clulow and United States Playing Card Co. Gaming Collection , which has been called one of the "most complete and scholarly collections [of books on cards and gaming] that has ever been gathered together".

Contemporary playing cards are grouped into three broad categories based on the suits they use: French, Latin, and Germanic. Latin suits are used in the closely related Spanish and Italian formats. The Swiss-German suits are distinct enough to merit their subcategory.

Excluding jokers and tarot trumps, the French card deck preserves the number of cards in the original Mamluk deck, while Latin and Germanic decks average fewer. Latin decks usually drop the higher-valued pip cards, while Germanic decks drop the lower-valued ones.

Within suits, there are regional or national variations called "standard patterns. Some patterns have been around for hundreds of years.

Jokers are not part of any pattern as they are a relatively recent invention and lack any standardized appearance so each publisher usually puts its own trademarked illustration into their decks. The wide variation of jokers has turned them into collectible items. Any card that bore the stamp duty like the ace of spades in England, the ace of clubs in France or the ace of coins in Italy are also collectible as that is where the manufacturer's logo is usually placed.

Typically, playing cards have indices printed in the upper-left and lower-right corners. While this design does not restrict which hand players hold their cards, some left-handed players may prefer to fan their cards in the opposite direction.

Some designs exist with indices in all four corners. French decks come in a variety of patterns and deck sizes. The card deck is the most popular deck and includes 13 ranks of each suit with reversible "court" or face cards. Each suit includes an ace , depicting a single symbol of its suit, a king, queen, and jack, each depicted with a symbol of their suit; and ranks two through ten, with each card depicting that number of pips of its suit.

As well as these 52 cards, commercial packs often include between one and six jokers, most often two. Decks with fewer than 52 cards are known as stripped decks.

The piquet pack has all values from 2 through 6 in each suit removed for a total of 32 cards. It is popular in France, the Low Countries , Central Europe and Russia and is used to play piquet , belote , bezique and skat.

It is also used in the Sri Lankan, whist -based game known as omi. Forty-card French suited packs are common in northwest Italy; these remove the 8s through 10s like Latin-suited decks.

A pinochle deck consists of two copies of a card schnapsen deck, thus 48 cards. The card Tarot Nouveau adds the knight card between queens and jacks along with 21 numbered trumps and the unnumbered Fool. Today the process of making playing cards is highly automated.

Large sheets of paper are glued together to create a sheet of pasteboard ; the glue may be black or dyed another dark color to increase the card stock's opacity. In the industry, this black compound is sometimes known as "gick".

After the desired imagery is etched into printing plates , the art is printed onto each side of the pasteboard sheet, which is coated with a textured or smooth finish, sometimes called a varnish or paint coating.

These coatings can be water- or solvent-based, and different textures and visual effects can be achieved by adding certain dyes or foils, or using multiple varnish processes. The pasteboard is then split into individual uncut sheets , which are cut into single cards and sorted into decks.

The tuck box may have a seal applied. Card manufacturers must pay special attention to the registration of the cards, as non- symmetrical cards can be used to cheat. Gambling corporations commonly have playing cards made specifically for their casinos. As casinos consume many decks daily, they sometimes resell used cards that were "on the [casino] floor".

The cards sold to the public are altered, either by cutting the deck's corners or by punching a hole in the deck, [7] to prevent them from being used for cheating in the casino. Because of the long history and wide variety in designs, playing cards are also collector's items. Custom decks may be produced for myriad purposes.

Across the world, both individuals and large companies such as United States Playing Card Company USPCC design and release many different styles of decks, [97] including commemorative decks [98] and souvenir decks. In , the JPL Gallery in London commissioned a card deck from a variety of contemporary British artists including Maggie Hambling , Patrick Heron , David Hockney , Howard Hodgkin , John Hoyland , and Allen Jones called "The Deck of Cards".

Playing cards are a useful tool to pass information to troops during downtime. In World War II, the United States Playing Card Company produced a deck of cards featuring silhouettes of American, British, German, and Japanese aircraft.

According to a Defense Intelligence Agency spokesperson, the practice actually dates back to the American Civil War. Card decks have also been used as an educational tool to help military personnel and civilians identify unexploded ordnance. Police departments, [] local governments, state prison systems, [] and even private organizations [] across the United States and other countries have created decks of cards that feature photos, names, and details of cold case victims or missing persons on each card.

Among inmates, they may be called "snitch cards". The Unicode names for each group of four glyphs are 'black' and 'white' but might have been more accurately described as 'solid' and 'outline' since the colour actually used at display or printing time is an application choice.

But the gamblers were responsible for some of the most notable features of modern decks. Historically, pips were highly variable, giving way to different sets of symbols rooted in geography and culture.

From stars and birds to goblets and sorcerers, pips bore symbolic meaning, much like the trump cards of older tarot decks. Unlike tarot, however, pips were surely meant as diversion instead of divination.

Even so, these cards preserved much of the iconography that had fascinated 16th-century Europe: astronomy, alchemy, mysticism, and history. Some historians have suggested that suits in a deck were meant to represent the four classes of Medieval society.

Cups and chalices modern hearts might have stood for the clergy; swords spades for the nobility or the military; coins diamonds for the merchants; and batons clubs for peasants. But the disparity in pips from one deck to the next resists such pat categorization.

Diamonds, by contrast, could have represented the upper class in French decks, as paving stones used in the chancels of churches were diamond shaped, and such stones marked the graves of the aristocratic dead. But how to account for the use of clover, acorns, leaves, pikes, shields, coins, roses, and countless other imagery?

British and French decks, for example, always feature the same four legendary kings: Charles, David, Caesar, and Alexander the Great.

Bostock notes that queens have not enjoyed similar reverence. Pallas, Judith, Rachel, and Argine variously ruled each of the four suits, with frequent interruption. As the Spanish adopted playing cards, they replaced queens with mounted knights or caballeros.

The ace rose to prominence in , according to the IPCS. That was the year England began to tax sales of playing cards. The ace was stamped to indicate that the tax had been paid, and forging an ace was a crime punishable by death.

To this day, the ace is boldly designed to stand out. The king of hearts offers another curiosity: The only king without a mustache, he appears to be killing himself by means of a sword to the head.

As printing spurred rapid reproduction of decks, the integrity of the original artwork declined. Login Customer Reviews Wishlist Contact Us.

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Betwizard prediction today cards are gambling cards and used the gambling cards cqrds almost gamblibg corner of the globe gambling cards laid claim to their invention. The Gamvling avow their standardization of the carte à jouer gambbling its ancestor, the play funzpoints casino. And gambping Gambling cards allege the earliest mention of a card game in any authenticated register. Today, the public might know how to play blackjack or bridge, but few stop to consider that a deck of cards is a marvel of engineering, design, and history. Cards have served as amusing pastimes, high-stakes gambles, tools of occult practice, magic tricks, and mathematical probability models—even, at times, as currency and as a medium for secret messages. In the process, decks of cards reveal peculiarities of their origins. gambling cards

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